Types of Rubrics

Analytic Rubrics

An analytic rubric breaks down the objective into specific component parts. Every section is scored independently using a rating scale. The final score is comprised by adding each component part. This type of rubric consists of dimensions or primary traits (e.g., Thesis, Analysis, Organization, Evidence, Mechanics) and levels of performance (e.g., Exceptional, Excellent, Acceptable, Needs Improvement).

Advantages:

  • Provides thorough feedback on a number of areas of development as each criterion is assessed individually (i.e., the student knows what to improve on)
  • Dimensions can be weighed to reflect the relative importance of each criteria

Disadvantages:

  • Takes more time to create and use than a holistic rubric
  • If each point for each criterion is not well-defined, instructors may not decide on the same score

Example:

Developmental Rubrics

Developmental rubrics are closely related to analytic rubrics to the extent that they also measure skill based on a weighted system. Although, developmental rubrics are not evaluating a finished product or end result like analytic rubrics. They are used to assess student weakness, connecting to the idea of, ”what are my students not taking away from my lessons?” Developmental rubrics have a smaller scope regarding what they are assessing, while the analytic rubrics assess an entire assignment.

Advantages:

  • Grades are not assigned to the assignment and students don’t have to finish an assignment to use it
  • The instructor may use this rubric to see the student’s progress/development without having students stress over the grade

Disadvantages:

  • This rubric can be challenging to design, since it depends heavily on the developmental theories behind the content and skills being learned, such as cognitive learning, behaviors, etc.
  • The time and work needed to comprehend the essential theories behind the rubric can be overwhelming

Example:

Holistic Rubrics

A holistic rubric is made up of a single scale with all criteria to be considered together. The instructor scores the assignment as a whole, without judging components separately (e.g., on a scale of 1 to 4). As such, a single score is assigned to the entire piece of student work.

Advantages:

  • Highlight what the learner is competent to do rather than what they cannot do
  • Saves time by reducing the amount of decisions the grader has to make
  • Can be applied consistently by several graders, increasing reliability

Disadvantages:

  • Does not provide detailed feedback for area of improvement
  • When student work is at varying levels extending beyond the criteria points it can be hard to select the single best description
  • Criteria cannot be weighted

Example:

 

References

Carnevale, J. (n.d.). Analytical, holistic & developmental rubrics. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/analytical-holistic-developmental-rubrics.html

Niosi, A. (2012). Creating rubrics for assessment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.ccsf.edu/dam/ccsf/documents/OfficeOfInstruction/SLO/2012_Sept_12_Flex/sloflexrubrics.pdf